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Revenge RAT targeting users in South America

The Uptycs threat research team recently came across multiple document samples that download Revenge RAT. The campaign currently seems to be active in Brazil. All of the malware samples we received have the same properties. One of the samples we received has the name “Rooming List Reservas para 3 Familias.docx” (SHA-256: 91611ac2268d9bf7b7cb2e71976c630f6b4bfdbb68774420bf01fd1493ed28c7). The document has only a few detections in VirusTotal.

VirusTotal detections for the document. (Image via VirusTotal.)

Figure 1: VirusTotal detections for the document. (Image via VirusTotal.)

Upon opening the document, a series of events happen that lead to the download of Revenge RAT malware hosted on a Brazilian website (hxxp://azulviagens[.]online). Azul Viagens is a legitimate hotel chain in Brazil and the official website of the hotel is https://www.azulviagens.com.br/. Attackers registered the fake domain name and used a room reservation document file to infect the end user. The attack is multi-stage with the components used in the attack spread across multiple files on the attacker’s server. The WHOIS records for hxxp://azulviagens[.]online seems to have been registered on December 10, 2020 with the email ID mmpereiramm30@gmail.com.

The attack flow

The components of the attack span multiple stages. Figure 2 (below) shows the steps involved in the attack.

The Revenge RAT attack flow.

Figure 2: The attack flow.

Step 1: The DOCX file (“Rooming List Reservas para 3 Familias.docx”) used in the attack vector downloads the “1.docx” (template) from the CnC server

Steps 2 and 3: The embedded “Microsoft_Excel_Macro-Enabled_Worsksheet1.xlsm” file in "1.docx" (template) downloads the PowerShell code “A.txt” from the CnC server and executes it in memory.

Step 4: The PowerShell code in “A.txt” downloads “index.mp3” from the CnC server and saves it as “index.vbs.”

Step 5: Upon execution, “index.vbs” creates “opera.vbs,” which contains code to execute “opera.ps1” created in the next step.

Step 6: “index.vbs” downloads “1.txt” and saves it as “opera.ps1,” which has obfuscated Revenge RAT in it.

Step 7: “opera.vbs” executes “opera.ps1.”

A detailed analysis of files used during various stages of the attack is provided below.

The initial document

The initial document, “Rooming List Reservas para 3 Familias.docx,” used as the attack vector is a DOCX file. The document uses a technique known as Dynamic Office Template Injection to bypass security products. This allows the attacker to store the malicious file on a remote server. This technique can evade anti-malware solutions that rely on static detection.

The document has the structure shown in Figure 3 (below). The structure contains a file named “footer.xml.rels.” The “target” fields in the file point to the templates hosted on the CnC server. There are several URLs in the “target” fields that point to files “1.docx” all the way to “9.docx” hosted on the CnC server. Each of the files has the same content (the same SHA-256: 338b2d8d76f4028bfbd177127371b2509971606553d606c534316dc40cfa8fb9).

 Structure of the DOCX and footer.xml.res pointing to the malicious template.

Figure 3: Structure of the DOCX and footer.xml.res pointing to the malicious template. (Click to see larger version.)

When the victim opens the document, one of the templates is downloaded and executed.

The template file

The template file("1.docx" ... "9x.docx") follows the structure shown in Figure 4 (below). The settings.xml in the structure have the “target” fields that point to XLSM files, which are present in the “embeddings'' directory in the structure of the DOCX file. The XLSM files “Microsoft_Excel_Macro-Enabled_Worksheet.xlsm” to “Microsoft_Excel_Macro-Enabled_Worksheet9.xlsm” have the same contents (same SHA-256: 32f1a502126b1932e1def04b98d8be235c8d25ef7268f8cb35d460cd073a88b2). When the template file ("1.docx" ... "9x.docx") is executed by Microsoft Word, it executes one of the XLSM files (“Microsoft_Excel_Macro-Enabled_Worksheet.xlsm” to “Microsoft_Excel_Macro-Enabled_Worksheet9.xlsm”).

XLSM files inside the 1.docx template.

Figure 4: XLSM files inside the 1.docx template. (Click to see larger version.)

The XLSM file

The XLSM file follows the structure shown in Figure 5 (below). The structure contains macros in the “VBAProject.bin” file. The following screenshot shows the stream containing the macros.

Macros in XLSM.

Figure 5: Macros in XLSM.

There are two important macros present in the BIN file: “Macro 1” kills the Microsoft Word process “winword.exe” and “Macro 2” downloads and executes the PowerShell code present at the URL
“hxxp://azulviagens[.]online/A.txt” in memory.

Figure 6 (below) shows the contents of “A.txt.”

PowerShell script in hxxp://azulviagens[.]online/A.txt.

Figure 6: PowerShell script in hxxp://azulviagens[.]online/A.txt.

When the PowerShell code in “A.txt” is executed, it downloads the contents of “index.mp3” and saves it to file the “index.vbs” and executes it.


Figure 7 (below) shows the code in “index.vbs.” When “index.vbs” is executed it creates another two files, “opera.vbs” and “opera.ps1” in the “C:\Users\Public\” directory. “Index.vbs” downloads the contents of hxxp://azulviagens[.]online/1.txt and saves it to “opera.ps1.” The “index.vbs” file places the following command in “opera.vbs”:

l.exe -nologo -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -File C:\Users\Public\Opera.ps1

The command is then executed. When executed, “opera.vbs” executes the file “opera.ps1."

Code in index.mp3 (index.vbs).

Figure 7: Code in index.mp3 (index.vbs). (Click to see larger version.)


“Opera.ps1” is a highly obfuscated PowerShell script (see Figure 8, below). One thing that catches our eye is the string “4D 5A,” which indicates the magic header of a Windows executable.

4D5A in opera.ps1

Figure 8: 4D5A in opera.ps1.

After de-obfuscating the PowerShell code, we were able to retrieve the Windows executable, which is the Revenge RAT. Below is the description of the Revenge RAT we extracted.

Similar PowerShell code was also found hosted on x-root.net, which has also been registered in recent months. Uptycs’ EDR capabilities can decode the obfuscated PowerShell code, as shown in the screenshot below (Figure 9).

Deobfuscated PowerShell code.

Figure 9: Deobfuscated PowerShell code. (Click to see larger version.)

The Revenge RAT

Revenge RAT was first seen mid-2016. The RAT has been coded in .NET. The Revenge RAT we extracted is not a packed binary and code is clearly visible. Below is a description of the various classes and methods present in the decompiled code.


The “Program” class shown in Figure 10 (below) contains the main function of the program. The main() function creates a mutex and then executes the rest of the code.

Program class.

Figure 10: Program class. (Click to see larger version.)

RAT configuration

Figure 11 (below) contains the configuration for the RAT, which is used during execution.

RAT configuration.

Figure 11: RAT configuration.

Below are some members of the config class and their functionality:

  • host: CnC server
  • port: CnC port
  • id: Unique identity of the installed RAT on the victim machine
  • currentMutex: Mutex placed by the RAT on the system
  • stopwatch(): This is a member function that can be use to reset the stopwatch


The class IdGenerator shown in Figure 12 (below) is used for creating a unique ID for the victim machine, which the RAT is going to send to the CnC server. A unique string ID is generated by retrieving various system attributes using the methods in the class. Below are some of the methods:

  • GetActiveWindow: Get active window or window of the application used by the user
  • GetAV: Get the antiviruses installed on the system
  • GetCamera: Get information about the camera
  • GetCpu: Get CPU information
  • GetHardDiskSerialNumber: Get hard disk serial number
  • GetIp: Get IP address
  • GetSystem: Get processor information
  • SendInfo: Concatenate information collected by previous methods into a string “id”


Figure 12: Components of the IdGenerator class. (Click to see larger version.)


The client class implements the network client of the RAT. It has the following methods:

  • Ping: Pings the CnC server
  • TCPReceive: Received data to the server
  • TCPSend: Send data to the server


The Handler class shown in Figure 13 (below) is used to process the CnC command received from the attacker.

CnC commands.

Figure 13: CnC commands. (Click to see larger version.)

Below is the list of commands:

  • PNC: Reset the stopwatch
  • P: Send the active windows to the CnC
  • IE: Check for installed plugins
  • LP: Invoke plugin
  • UNV: ninstall, restart the RAT

Variants of Revenge RAT are known to have many other capabilities as listed below:

  • Screen capture
  • Keylogging
  • Video capture
  • Credential dumping
  • Audio capture

Uptycs EDR detections

The following images show Uptycs EDR detection for the threat.

Uptycs EDR detections.

Figure 14: Uptycs EDR detections. (Click to see larger version.)

Process graph in Uptycs EDR.

Figure 15: Process graph in Uptycs EDR. (Click to see larger version.)

Process graph continued.

Figure 16: Process graph continued. (Click to see larger version.)

Indicators of compromise

Below is the list of IOCs seen in the Revenge RAT attack.


Initial attack document

Initial attack document





Revenge RAT




rule upt_Revenge_RAT {
		author = "abhijit mohanta"
		date = "20 Dec 2020"

		$upt_Revenge_RAT0 = "Revenge-RAT"  ascii wide nocase
		$upt_Revenge_RAT1 = "mscoree.dll"  ascii wide nocase
		$upt_Revenge_RAT2 = "REVEGERRRRR.exe"  ascii wide nocase
		$upt_Revenge_RAT3 = "keepAlivePing!"  ascii wide nocase
		$upt_Revenge_RAT4 = "AntiVirusProduct"  ascii wide nocase
		$upt_Revenge_RAT5 = "FirewallProduct"  ascii wide nocase

		all of ($upt_Revenge_RAT*)